Charles Gibson Distinguished University Professor of History and Professor of Law, University of Michigan

To what can we attribute the distinct racial ideologies that emerged in different slaveholding societies in the Americas? In this rich and innovative comparative study, Gross and de la Fuente emphasize the role of the emergence of communities of free persons of African descent, and their evolution over time….As slavery itself was abolished, these prior differences laid the groundwork for divergent experiences of access to the rights of citizenship. This is a provocative and important book.